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Harvard Referencing

Short guide to Harvard referencing based on Cite them Right

Articles with a single author

Proctor, A. (2019) ‘Student paramedics' views on placements in general practice as part of a degree', Journal of Paramedic Practice, 11(12), pp. 519-525.

Articles with two or three authors

Lowe, A., Littlewood, C. and McLean, S. (2018) ‘Understanding physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice: a qualitative study’, Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 35, pp. 1-7.

Articles with four or more authors

Toomey, E.C. et al. (2021) 'Extended use or reuse of single-use surgical masks and filtering face-piece respirators during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: A rapid systematic review', Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 42(1), pp. 75-83.

Articles with a doi

Nightingale, J. (2015) ‘Radiography research as a global community’, Radiography, 21(2), pp. 108-109. doi:10.1016/j.radi.2015.03.006.

Including a doi (digital object identifier) is usually optional, just be consistent.  It is not needed in the example above but not wrong to add it. It is, however, needed when you are using an online-only journal that has no page numbers. In that case the doi is used in place of page numbers or other missing information in your reference.

An example is provided below:

Keranen, N.S. et al. (2017)  'Use of information and communication technologies among older people with and without frailty: a population-based survey', Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(2). doi: 10.2196/jmir.5507.

The PDF version that is usually available from the doi link may give temporary page numbers that you can use in your citation, for example:

The growing role of information and communication technologies (Keranen et al., 2017, p.1) has led to concerns...