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Vancouver Referencing

Basic instructions on how to reference using the Vancouver system


You will need to be clear about what it is you are citing e.g., lecturer's notes, a PowerPoint presentation, an image digitised for use in Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) or an item from a discussion board.

Details required for reference:

Author/Tutor's Surname Initial. Title of lecture/item [format]. Name of academic module, Institution; year month date [cited year month day]. Available from: URL of virtual learning environment.


1. Burke P. Choosing your topic and writing your research question [PowerPoint]. Evidence Based Practice for Paramedics, St George's, University of London; 2020 Feb 03 [cited 2021 Mar 01]. Available from: