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Vancouver Referencing

Basic instructions on how to reference using the Vancouver system


Citations (sometimes called in-text citations) are included within the text of your work, at points where you have used someone else's information.  This could be a quote, a paraphrase or a summary of this source of information. 

In the Vancouver style the in-text citation consists of a number in round brackets at the point where you have referred to someone else’s work, starting with the number. The number is incremented each time you insert a new citation.

There is no specific convention regarding the use of page numbers with in-text citations in the Vancouver style (1, p. 248), however it is good practice to use them where you have paraphrased or quoted from a specific page.  When quoting directly from your source, you should 'use single quotation marks' (2).


Citing a single work

Citation at the end of the sentence.


In clinical practice, up to 2.5L of fluid has been administered on one infusion (3, p.25).  A number of studies have....


Citation integral to the sentence.


Newman (4) has argued that....

Citing multiple works at the same time

If you are citing more than one information source in the same place in your text, then each source needs to be given a number in the in-text citation and must then be listed fully in your reference list.  If the numbers are a consecutive range, then link the first and last inclusive numbers with a hyphen, if not then separate each number with a comma.

For example, citing works 3,4,5,6 and 9 would look like this...

Several studies (3-6, 9) have compared the effects of eating ice cream ....


The effects on the body of eating ice cream have been compared in several studies (3-6, 9).